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Germán Santillán: A taste of Mexico’s ancient chocolate-making tradition | TED

Visit to get our entire library of TED Talks, transcripts, translations, personalized talk recommendations and more. Dating back more than 800 years, chocolate is deeply woven into the Indigenous history of Oaxaca, Mexico. TED Fellow Germán Santillán talks about his work reviving the Mixtec technique used to prepare this ancient delicacy by training a new…

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Visit to get our entire library of TED Talks, transcripts, translations, personalized talk recommendations and more.

Dating back more than 800 years, chocolate is deeply woven into the Indigenous history of Oaxaca, Mexico. TED Fellow Germán Santillán talks about his work reviving the Mixtec technique used to prepare this ancient delicacy by training a new generation of local farmers — helping create economic opportunity and preserve a delicious legacy at the same time.

The TED Talks channel features the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world’s leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design — plus science, business, global issues, the arts and more. You’re welcome to link to or embed these videos, forward them to others and share these ideas with people you know.

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TED’s videos may be used for non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons License, Attribution–Non Commercial–No Derivatives (or the CC BY – NC – ND 4.0 International) and in accordance with our TED Talks Usage Policy (). For more information on using TED for commercial purposes (e.g. employee learning, in a film or online course), please submit a Media Request at

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57 Comments

57 Comments

  1. M〆『MONEEB』 PUBG

    September 13, 2021 at 3:01 pm

    💎💎👍👍👍👍💎💎

  2. げっこー

    September 13, 2021 at 3:02 pm

    👓🧔🏻‍♂️

  3. M〆『MONEEB』 PUBG

    September 13, 2021 at 3:02 pm

    A kurdish vedeo please!!!!!

  4. Hakim

    September 13, 2021 at 3:03 pm

    Nice

  5. Maths Teacher Manish Kumar

    September 13, 2021 at 3:05 pm

    FIrst comment❤️🔥

  6. Michael Russel

    September 13, 2021 at 3:06 pm

    Why is it always yellow tint filter for mexico

  7. David Valdivia

    September 13, 2021 at 3:08 pm

    👏👏👏 oaxacanita ❤️❤️❤️

  8. MANISH KUMAR

    September 13, 2021 at 3:09 pm

    LOVE YOU MA’AMS SIRS & ALLLLLL 💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖💖

  9. Fam G vlog

    September 13, 2021 at 3:20 pm

    Cacao more power

  10. Mercedes Castiñeira Sánchez

    September 13, 2021 at 3:27 pm

    México es un mundo cultural tan rico 😍 confieso mi anhelo profundo por descubrirlo.

  11. Freedom From Diabetes Victor

    September 13, 2021 at 3:28 pm

    Hi, thank you for sharing the information.🌷🌹🌷💝💝

  12. David Oliveira

    September 13, 2021 at 3:50 pm

    “..That warms not only your heart, but also your soul.” -Germán Santillán

  13. TheEnd GameFL

    September 13, 2021 at 4:08 pm

    sounds very wonderful!

  14. Healthy Life and Mental Repose

    September 13, 2021 at 4:18 pm

    Well that was quite interesting. Thanks.
    Esto es tan interesante de ver. Wooow. México es encantador

  15. Richard Hannay

    September 13, 2021 at 4:37 pm

    Que Rico!

  16. Lucinda Flores

    September 13, 2021 at 4:45 pm

    👏 Que maravilloso proyecto!! Felicitaciones! Lo buscaré para probarlo se ve delicioso!

    • Oaxacanita chocolate

      September 14, 2021 at 4:35 am

      Muchas gracias <3

  17. True Crime Queen TV

    September 13, 2021 at 5:22 pm

    I love your videos!! They are so amazing. Be safe out there everyone 🍒💖

  18. Salbiah Ahmad

    September 13, 2021 at 5:43 pm

    Thank you for sharing the rich traditions of your people

  19. Anamul Haq

    September 13, 2021 at 6:01 pm

    Can anyone wants to be my speaking partner and already have done IELTS registration for the November? I want to practice daily basis.
    Thank you!!

  20. 05_2B_Davine Floyd

    September 13, 2021 at 6:45 pm

    Because of the economic crisis and the rate of unemployment, now is the best time to invest and make money 💯

    • Edith

      September 13, 2021 at 6:58 pm

      My first Investment with Mr David gave me the assurance that has made me invest without the fear of losing , i got four of my friends involved with him already

    • Anthony Pareño

      September 13, 2021 at 6:59 pm

      I’m from UK 🇬🇧 i and my colleagues gave him a try and it has been good returns of our Investment, thanks Expert David

    • nas Daily

      September 13, 2021 at 7:00 pm

      I’ve got 12th winning thanks to Mr David , he’s really the best , I have made £16,200 in 18 days of working with him

    • Aliyah

      September 13, 2021 at 7:00 pm

      I met Mr David for the first time at a conference in manchester i invested £25,000 and traded in one month making close to £143,670

    • Ian Dave

      September 13, 2021 at 7:01 pm

      Seeing Alot of success stories, he’s must be honest and trustworthy for people to talk this good about him.

  21. Iama freespirit

    September 13, 2021 at 6:54 pm

    Love chocolate next to coffee 🤫

  22. noor al zahraa

    September 13, 2021 at 8:34 pm

    شكرا

  23. Samuel Zev

    September 13, 2021 at 11:56 pm

    Now this looks both delicious and interesting. They should have a workshop on chocolate planting, harvesting and cooking, id definitely join.

  24. Mercedes Benzos

    September 14, 2021 at 12:36 am

    This is heartwarming and I wish them much success. I love Mexican hot chocolate. It brings back comforting childhood memories.

    On a different note, the English Close Captioning is a hot mess and made me honestly laugh out loud a couple times, especially when they had, “Tony Stark bikin simultaneously” 😂

  25. Wiandry Adi Wasistio

    September 14, 2021 at 1:56 am

    the auto-caption is indonesian…

    • Kasual Steel

      September 15, 2021 at 6:07 am

      Auto caption is a setting on your platform…

  26. mahmudi kafrawi

    September 14, 2021 at 2:44 am

    Great….

  27. chris moule

    September 14, 2021 at 3:00 am

    Why would 19 people give this a thumbs down. It’s a fantastic story of success that should be praised. As a avid chocolate fan I salute you

    • Oaxacanita chocolate

      September 14, 2021 at 4:35 am

      We salute you back! 😀

    • Kasual Steel

      September 15, 2021 at 6:12 am

      Likely they are “muppets”

      For hire content negative raters as part of campaigns to drive someone ELSEs youtube rating algorythym.

  28. Aunt Shawna

    September 14, 2021 at 4:01 am

    Geez Louise!!!! I’m totally in love with Mexican chocolate and went straight to the website but they’re charging freakin’ $60 for 3.5 ounces of chocolate!!!!!! That’s the equivalent of THREE Skor bars, man!!!!!! Too rich for MY blood and WAY too expensive for the folks that bloody live there and MAKE the stuff!!!!! Nothing like exploiting your own people, man.

    • Armemos Un Jolgorio

      September 14, 2021 at 4:34 am

      You should ask again, they have a special offer of 1.5kg which are about 53 ounces for $65, so cool!

    • Pantita Palittapongarnpim

      September 15, 2021 at 4:50 am

      You mean in peso. You know, MXN $.

  29. She Reads ☮️ She Scries

    September 14, 2021 at 5:30 am

    No disrespect to the content, love chocolate, but omg turn on the English subtitles for an entirely different story! Tony Stark bikini appears in the text, in fact most of the English is AI fail, so everyone adopt a Mexican accent because AI cannot hear your words basically AT ALL!
    The subtext was absolutely hilarious! Watch it twice!
    I had NO problem understanding his English. I’m smarter than AI, obviously!

  30. Donna Haynes

    September 14, 2021 at 6:49 am

    I am so sad that chocolate ism a migraine trigger for me. I love chocolate and would love to support these people.

  31. totalfreedom45

    September 14, 2021 at 1:56 pm

    *_1_* Archaeologists have discovered the earliest traces of cacao in pottery used by the ancient Mayo-Chinchipe culture in the upper Amazon region of Ecuador 7500 years ago.
    *_2_* Jeanne Louise Calment was the longest living human being—21 February 1875–4 August 1997 (122 years, 164 days)—who claimed her secret to long life was olive oil and chocolate.
    💕 ☮ 🌎 🌌

  32. tina toh

    September 14, 2021 at 4:06 pm

    Nice !💐💐👏👍

  33. Jessica Villena

    September 14, 2021 at 4:10 pm

    Orgullo Mexicano! mas emprendedores con causa como German!

  34. Uwe Grygier

    September 14, 2021 at 6:51 pm

    No más monocultivos ! Anque sea chocolate ! Real sustentabilidad por favor !

  35. Akbar Zib

    September 14, 2021 at 9:06 pm

    Yes! Finally something useful on this damned propaganda outlet!

  36. Elias Machado

    September 14, 2021 at 10:07 pm

    The Mexican tradition is so beautiful, We may share all of knowledge of this amazing ancient culture.

  37. NACIDA DE NUEVO

    September 15, 2021 at 8:21 pm

    MARANATA !!! 🎺🎺🎺 WHAT DOES MARANATA MEAN? MATTHEW 4:17 / ROMANS 10: 9 / JOHN 8:58

    Matthew 24:39 ^
    And they had no care till the waters came and took them all away; so will be the coming of the Son of man.

    COME INTO THE ARK, YOU ARE ON TIME MY FRIEND: THERE IS STILL PLACE. MARANATA !!!

  38. Mark veneracion

    September 15, 2021 at 8:34 pm

    Investing in crypto is the only big chance of making money

    • Michael Fxc

      September 15, 2021 at 9:03 pm

      @Vanderbilt Morins How do I contact Mr Eric Morgan

    • Vanderbilt Morins

      September 15, 2021 at 9:05 pm

      Through whatsap⬇

    • Vanderbilt Morins

      September 15, 2021 at 9:07 pm

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    • Michael Fxc

      September 15, 2021 at 9:10 pm

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    • Johnson Raccoon

      September 15, 2021 at 9:14 pm

      Trading crypto now will be very wise but trading without a professional is not

  39. L

    September 16, 2021 at 5:13 pm

    Nice Information 🖤💤 ..

  40. Draco Lucius Malfoy

    September 17, 2021 at 2:23 pm

    I’m CHOCOLATER

  41. Frannie Mark

    September 17, 2021 at 10:01 pm

    Hyb

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Nonprofits & Activism

Sasha Sarago: The (de)colonizing of beauty | TED

Visit to get our entire library of TED Talks, transcripts, translations, personalized talk recommendations and more. Beauty is about more than the body you inhabit — it’s a way of being that goes beyond genetics or societal ideals. Aboriginal writer and former model Sasha Sarago invites you to decolonize beauty, moving away from the monolithic…

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Visit to get our entire library of TED Talks, transcripts, translations, personalized talk recommendations and more.

Beauty is about more than the body you inhabit — it’s a way of being that goes beyond genetics or societal ideals. Aboriginal writer and former model Sasha Sarago invites you to decolonize beauty, moving away from the monolithic Eurocentric archetype and towards a more essential, authentic understanding of self that belongs to everyone.

The TED Talks channel features the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world’s leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design — plus science, business, global issues, the arts and more. You’re welcome to link to or embed these videos, forward them to others and share these ideas with people you know.

Become a TED Member:
Follow TED on Twitter:
Like TED on Facebook:
Subscribe to our channel:

TED’s videos may be used for non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons License, Attribution–Non Commercial–No Derivatives (or the CC BY – NC – ND 4.0 International) and in accordance with our TED Talks Usage Policy (). For more information on using TED for commercial purposes (e.g. employee learning, in a film or online course), please submit a Media Request at

Transcriber:

Today, I would like
to talk to you about beauty

and how we’ve got it all wrong when it
comes to our perceptions of women,

particularly Aboriginal women.

But before I do, I would like to
acknowledge the traditional custodians

of the land in which I stand upon:

the Gadigal people of the Eora Nation.

I pay my respects to the elders past,
present and emerging

and give thanks to our ancestors
who guide and protect us.

It was 1990, and I was pumped.

I was off to my first birthday party,

just before I hit the terrible teens.

No chaperone,

and no bratty sister to tag along
so she could snitch.

I had my cute little outfit on,

gift in hand,

and I was hoping that this little cutie
that I liked would show up.

And I was hoping that this little cutie
would ask me this one question.

You know that question that makes
your heart beat right out your chest —

Do you want to be my girlfriend? —

even though I had no business
having a boyfriend at that age.

But it didn’t matter,

because back then,
it was all about the rush.

I never did get asked that question.

But the question I did get asked was:

What’s your background?

And like any proud
Aboriginal child would declare,

“I’m Aboriginal.”

Given the reaction of the room,

being Aboriginal was clearly a dirty word.

And at the tender age of 11,

I was told by my best
friend’s adult sister

that I was too pretty to be Aboriginal.

By this time, my mouth is dry,
my blood is boiling,

and I’m trying so hard to fight back
what feels like an ocean of tears.

I calmly join my circle of friends

and begin to fake laugh
at whatever is funny

to mask my embarrassment,

as I clutch on to my newfound complex.

And this is why we need to change
our perceptions of beauty.

And how we do this is by learning
from Aboriginal women,

their stories and perspectives.

Because right now, “pretty” hurts.

Pretty hurts because you’re trying
to erase my Aboriginality,

to applaud my proximity to whiteness.

Pretty hurts because aimed
at an Aboriginal woman,

it is a weapon loaded in racism,

sexual exploitation

and cultural genocide.

You see, what this woman didn’t realize

when she declared that I was
too pretty to be Aboriginal

is that she took something
precious from me:

pride in my identity.

You see, I belong to the oldest
living culture in the world,

but that day, that legacy —

it was replaced with shame,

and it’s been this filthy stain
I’ve been trying to get rid of

for 20 years.

And this is where
my obsession for beauty comes from,

over the years,
trying to mimic it as a model,

advocating for diversity in fashion,

to launching “Ascension” magazine
to celebrate women of color,

whose beauty is still underrepresented.

With much pain and trauma behind one word,

“pretty” taught me,
through my indigeneity,

I could reclaim my beauty.

To Indigenous women,

true beauty came from
the traditional roles we upheld,

our kinship systems,

connection to country and the waterways

and how we pass this ancient knowledge
down to the next generation.

The way we express beauty

was never defined against
a Eurocentric ideal of beauty.

You see, in my culture,
our beauty is not monolithic.

It’s not measured by a thin waistline,
porcelain skin or slender hips.

It runs much deeper than that.

So what does indigenous beauty look like?

Oh, it’s fierce, defiant and proud.

And one ancestor who epitomizes
indigenous beauty is Barangaroo,

a powerful Cammeraygal woman.

Revered for her wisdom and independence,
Barangaroo, like the Eora other women,

took pride in their status as being
the main food providers for their tribe.

A skillful and patient fisherwoman,

Barangaroo would access Sydney Harbour
and its surrounding waters

for its abundant food supply,

only taking what was needed.

So you can just imagine
how furious Barangaroo was

when she saw British colonists
troll 4,000 salmon off the north shore

in just one day,

then gifting some
of this catch to her husband

and some of the other men from her tribe.

Barangaroo knew such a wasteful act

would threaten the Eora women’s
cultural authority within the tribe,

furthermore destroying
their traditional way of life.

So Barangaroo rejected
British laws and customs,

their food, drink and social etiquette,

even when her husband decided to conform.

When Barangaroo and her husband Bennelong
were invited to dine with Governor Phillip

and the British party,

Barangaroo stayed true to who she was.

instead of wearing colonial attire —

a tight corset and a gown layered
in silk finished with pearls —

she came sporting her traditional wares:

white ochre and a bone through her nose.

What Barangaroo illustrated was:
indigenous beauty is authentic.

Aunty Beryl Van-Oploo,
a respected Gamilaraay elder,

shared a story
with a group of women one day,

and she said,

“We all have a bit of Barangaroo in us.”

Later that evening, I thought about
Aunty Beryl’s message.

And what I received from her message was,

no matter our culture,

color or how we identify,

spirit is what we share.

It’s what connects us.

You see, if we indigenize beauty,

the meaning is transformed
from aesthetically pleasing

to a state of divinity;

beauty now becomes spirit manifested.

Not only is spirit found within us,

it’s in all things.

It’s in the landscapes,
it’s in the elements.

The Yolngu people
of northeast Arnhem Land,

they have a Dreamtime story:

Walu, the Sun woman.

They say Walu lights
a small fire each morning,

which creates the dawn.

She then paints her body in red ochre.

And as she does, some of it
falls onto the clouds,

creating the sunrise.

She then makes a torch
from a stringybark tree

and carries this fire across the sky
from east to west,

creating the daylight.

And when it’s time for her journey to end,

she descends from the sky.

And as she does, some of the red ochre
from her body falls onto the clouds,

creating the sunset.

Indigenous beauty can be seen
right across this continent,

each Aboriginal nation with its own
creation stories of how we came to be —

astronomy, medicine, agriculture,
architecture, education, innovation.

And when we had conflict,

we had lore, l-o-r-e, to restore order.

Like the seasons,
flora and fauna, night and day,

we are all interconnected.

One does not work without the other —

the very principles which binds
humanity together.

Over the years, my obsession for beauty,

it’s led me to this truth:

you cannot appreciate beauty

if you cannot recognize it in yourself.

So how do we change
our perceptions of beauty?

We have to get real with ourselves

and start by asking: Who am I?

Where do I come from?

The world that I live in —
how did it come to be?

And more importantly: Where to from here?

You may not like what you discover.

But sit with it, feel the discomfort.

Colonization has stolen from us

one of the greatest treasures
we can obtain:

each other.

This year alone, we’ve witnessed
pathological political and social unrest.

That is why healing
is the antidote humanity needs

because it leads us to unity.

When we decolonize beauty,

we are reintroduced
to our authentic selves.

I used to wonder whatever happened
to that woman from the birthday party,

you know, the one that told me
I was too pretty to be Aboriginal.

A moment that was so devastating
helped me to embrace my girgorou.

“Girgorou” means “beautiful” in Jirrbal,
my grandmother’s language.

I now know that my girgorou is mighty,

like Barangaroo.

And my girgorou, like Walu,

it’s everlasting,

from when that sun rises
to when that sun sets.

Are you ready to embrace your girgorou?

Thank you.

(Applause)

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Nonprofits & Activism

Miracle Jones: The radical, revolutionary resilience of Black joy | TED

Visit to get our entire library of TED Talks, transcripts, translations, personalized talk recommendations and more. In the face of trauma, happiness is resilience: a revolutionary act of thriving despite all odds, rather than wilting or surrendering. Community organizer and activist Miracle Jones offers a heart-to-heart meditation on the role of joy as a form…

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Visit to get our entire library of TED Talks, transcripts, translations, personalized talk recommendations and more.

In the face of trauma, happiness is resilience: a revolutionary act of thriving despite all odds, rather than wilting or surrendering. Community organizer and activist Miracle Jones offers a heart-to-heart meditation on the role of joy as a form of radical resistance, survival and protection for Black folks in the US and across the world. A warm reminder to embrace the guiding light of hope in the presence of darkness.

The TED Talks channel features the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world’s leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design — plus science, business, global issues, the arts and more. You’re welcome to link to or embed these videos, forward them to others and share these ideas with people you know.

Become a TED Member:
Follow TED on Twitter:
Like TED on Facebook:
Subscribe to our channel:

TED’s videos may be used for non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons License, Attribution–Non Commercial–No Derivatives (or the CC BY – NC – ND 4.0 International) and in accordance with our TED Talks Usage Policy (). For more information on using TED for commercial purposes (e.g. employee learning, in a film or online course), please submit a Media Request at

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Nonprofits & Activism

Candis Watts Smith: 3 myths about racism that keep the US from progress | TED

Visit to get our entire library of TED Talks, transcripts, translations, personalized talk recommendations and more. Racism morphs, spreading and hiding behind numerous half-truths and full-blown falsities about where it lives and who embodies it. In this actionable talk, political scientist Candis Watts Smith debunks three widely accepted myths about racism in the US and…

Published

on

Visit to get our entire library of TED Talks, transcripts, translations, personalized talk recommendations and more.

Racism morphs, spreading and hiding behind numerous half-truths and full-blown falsities about where it lives and who embodies it. In this actionable talk, political scientist Candis Watts Smith debunks three widely accepted myths about racism in the US and calls for a nuanced, more expansive definition to support this new era of anti-racist action.

The TED Talks channel features the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world’s leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes (or less). Look for talks on Technology, Entertainment and Design — plus science, business, global issues, the arts and more. You’re welcome to link to or embed these videos, forward them to others and share these ideas with people you know.

Become a TED Member:
Follow TED on Twitter:
Like TED on Facebook:
Subscribe to our channel:

TED’s videos may be used for non-commercial purposes under a Creative Commons License, Attribution–Non Commercial–No Derivatives (or the CC BY – NC – ND 4.0 International) and in accordance with our TED Talks Usage Policy (). For more information on using TED for commercial purposes (e.g. employee learning, in a film or online course), please submit a Media Request at

Transcriber:

When I’m out at the grocery store
or maybe a restaurant

or the park with my son —
he’s six and a half —

people will stop us and mention
that they think that he’s handsome.

I agree.

They’ll use that opportunity
to chop it up with him,

and often when they’re done
talking with him,

they’ll mention that they think
he’s a smart and engaging little guy.

When those people walk away,
the thought that comes to my mind

is that I hope they remember
meeting him as a child

when they see him again as a grown man.

This thought comes to my mind

because I’ve written two books about race
and racism in the United States,

and this kind of work
can produce feelings of pessimism.

One of the things that I’ve learned

is that Americans have
an orientation toward progress.

In this context,

what that means is that we often celebrate
the distance between where we were

and where we are now.

But that same orientation can blind us
from the gap between where we are

and where we could or should be.

The other thing I’ve learned
about Americans

is that we have a very,
very narrow understanding of racism,

mostly in the minds and hearts of people,

usually old people —

old people from the South.

And this really narrow definition
can constrain our opportunities

to produce a more
racially egalitarian society.

We like to hunt for races

and distance ourselves from people who say
mean things about whole groups of people

or who idealize the 1950s.

But the fact of the matter is that
we might just need to look in the mirror.

Now, I’m not saying
that everyone here is a racist,

but what I am saying
is that everyone here has the capacity

and perhaps even the propensity

to live their life in a way,

to make decisions,

to rely on biases

that reproduce racial inequality.

Some people say, “Well, you do all this
work about racism. What’s the answer?”

And I say that the first thing
we might need to do

is to come to a shared understanding

about what racism is in the first place.

History shows that racists
have had the upper hand

in deciding who the racists are
and what racism is,

and it’s never them
or the things that they do.

But maybe if we come together

and come to a shared and perhaps a precise
definition of what racism is,

we can work toward creating a society

where mothers like me aren’t in constant
fear of their children’s lives.

I’d like to dispel
three myths about racism

on our trek toward mutual understanding.

First:

it’s true that the South has done
its work to earn its reputation

as the most racist region.

But there are other states and regions
that are competing for the title.

For example,

if we look at the most segregated states
in terms of where Black kids go to school,

we’ll see, sure, some are in the South.

There are some out west,

in the Midwest

and in the Northeast.

They’re where we live.

Or if we look at states
with the biggest racial disparities

in terms of prison populations,

we see that none of them
are in the South.

They’re where we live.

My colleague Rebecca Kreitzer and I

looked at a standard battery
of racial attitudes of prejudice,

and we found that in the 1990s,

states in the South dominated
the most racially negative attitudes.

But this geography has evolved,
and things have changed.

By 2016, we found
that the Dakotas, Nebraska,

states in the Midwest, in the Northeast,

were competing for the “most prejudiced
population” titles.

Now, I’m not saying that one state
is more racist than another,

but what I am saying is that every state

might have its own
special brand of racism.

And it doesn’t have to be like this.

Most of the inequalities that we see in
our day-to-day lives

happen at the state and local level.

What that means is that we don’t
have to go all the way to Congress

to make change in our communities.

We can simply hold our city, our county,
our state legislators to task

to produce more equitable outcomes.

Myth two:

we’re not that good
at hunting for racists.

Remember that time when the governor
of Virginia did blackface,

and people were like, “Oh, that’s bad.
I need to get that racist out of here”?

I was giving y’all the side-eye,
and here’s why.

While people were going back to yearbooks

to look for things
that were obviously racist,

fewer people were looking into
the current-day policy stances

of legislators who probably did
blackface but didn’t get caught.

So, how many of us
might have supported a candidate

who is willing to let neighborhoods
secede from their district

so that kids could go
to all-white schools —

in the 21st century?

Or how many of us might have
supported a ballot measure

that systematically reduced
some groups’ chances of voting?

Or how many of us might have focused on
the behavior of Black mothers

rather than doctors or health care
systems and policies

when we learn about
the huge racial disparities

in maternal and infant mortality?

It doesn’t have to be like this.

We could do something different.

We could scrutinize the behaviors
of the rule makers.

We could orient ourselves
toward a more just society,

and on our way there,

we can’t mystify practical
policy solutions.

Myth three:

If you believe that when all
the grandmas in Mississippi die

that racism is going to go with them,

you are in for a big disappointment.

We like to think that young people

are going to do the hard work
of eradicating racism,

but there are some things
that we should note.

We know that young folks, young white
folks especially, like diversity,

they appreciate it,
they’re looking for it.

But we also know that they don’t
live diverse lives.

Research shows that the average white
American literally has one black friend.

And what that means is that most
don’t have any at all.

Sociologists like Sarah Mayorga show that
even when well-meaning white folks

move to diverse neighborhoods,

they don’t necessarily have
positive interactions,

no less any with their neighbors
who aren’t white.

My research with Professor
Christopher DeSante shows

that when we ask white millennials
their racial attitudes

and policy preferences,

that they’re sometimes,
just as in other times,

even more racially
conservative than boomers.

When we ask them about the things
that are important to them,

they don’t have
any particular sense of urgency

around questions of racial inequality.

How did we get like this?

Well, one of the things we might
think about is how we raise our kids

and equip them to solve the problems
that we want them to solve.

Research shows that
white parents in particular

will either choose to not talk
about issues of racism to their kids

in order to protect them
from a harsh racial reality

or they instill colorblind lessons,

and that can actually reinforce
negative racial attitudes.

So it’s kind of like

how some of your parents
might have given you books about puberty

so they didn’t have to talk about
the birds and the bees,

and then you tried to connect all the dots
and then you did it all wrong.

It’s like that.

It doesn’t have to be like this.

We can do better.

We can have hard
conversations with our kids

so that they don’t grow up
like many of us did,

thinking that talking about racism
makes you a racist — it doesn’t —

and so that we can prevent them
from making the same mistakes

that we’ve seen in the past.

Remember a long, long time ago in 2008,

when we were all pining to live
in a post-racial world?

Well, I say that it’s time for us
to think bigger and dream bigger

and think about what it would be like
to live in a post-racist world.

But in order to do that,
we’d have to come together

to have a shared definition of racism —

not just in the matter
of hearts and minds,

but in systems, policies, rules,

decisions made over and over again
to marginalize some people —

and agree to become anti-racists —
people who learn more and do better.

So we could ask harder
questions of candidates

about their stances on racial inequality

before we throw
our full weight behind them.

We could buycott or boycott businesses

whose practices don’t align
with our values.

We could talk to our kids about racism.

We could figure out our state’s
special brand of racism

and work to eradicate it.

People made racial disparities,
and people can unmake them.

And sure, it’ll be hard,

but the fact of the matter is,

someone is depending on us
to do nothing at all.

Thank you.

(Applause)

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